It belongs to melt welding, with laser beam as energy, impact on the welding piece joint.
The laser beam can be guided by a planar optical element (such as a mirror), which is then projected onto the weld by a reflective focusing element or lens.
The laser welding machine is non-contact welding, the operation process does not need to be pressurized, but the inert gas must be used to prevent oxidation of the molten pool, and the filler metal is used occasionally.
Laser welding can be combined with MIG welding to realize large welding and deep welding, while thermal input is much less than MIG welding.
(1) it can reduce the incoming heat to the minimum requirement, and the range of metallographic variation in the thermal effect area is small, and the deformation caused by the heat conduction is also the lowest.
(2) the welding process parameters of 32mm plate thick single channel welding are qualified, which can reduce the time required for thick plate welding and even eliminate the use of filler metal.
(3) no electrodes are needed, no contamination or damage caused by electrodes. And because it does not belong to contact welding process, the loss of equipment and deformation can be minimized.
(4) the laser beam is easy to focus, alignment, and guided by optical instrument, the workpiece can be placed in the appropriate distance, and the artifacts around the machine or the barrier between the guide again, other laws of welding is limited by the space to play.
(5) the workpiece can be placed in a closed space (controlled by a vacuum or internal gas environment).
(6) the laser beam can be focused in a very small area and can be welded with small and spaced parts.